STREAM: The Political Economy of Development in Africa: The politics of economic and social transformation
The stream would invite papers and panels studying the political economy of African countries. At the ASAUK 2016, Lindsay Whitfield organised a stream including a number of scholars working on the Political economy of development in Africa. This stream would build on the platform established at ASAUK 2016 and hope to cement a space for discussion on the political economy of development in Africa at future ASAs. The ASAUK 2016 stream included panels such as the politics of growth and the new productivism, the political economy of natural resource investments, the political economy of large-scale energy investments, industrial policies for industrialization, African-owned firms in new export sectors, state and party capitalism, the politics of financial regulation, the political economy of investment and transition in African agriculture and agrarian capitalists in Africa.
The stream would invite panels on any of those topics or others including:
- Political Settlements and their impact on economic/social outcomes
- State-Business Relations
- The politics of value-addition in African countries and the politics of global value chains, production networks, commodity chains
- The political economy of banking sectors in Africa
- The Political economy of urban transformation
- The political economy of renewable energy transformations in Africa
PANEL 1: State capacity and the political economy of development in Africa: ‘pockets of effectiveness’ as windows onto the politics of survival and state-building
Chair – Sam Hickey, University of Manchester, email@example.com
Building higher levels of state capacity has played a critical role in enabling developing countries to achieve progress, particularly in terms of establishing the conditions for economic growth and avoiding problems associated with the resource curse. However, history suggests that ‘developmental states’ were not characterized by Weberian civil services and high levels of state capacity across the board, but rather that growth was driven in part by small bureaucratic enclaves performing specific functions. Often referred to as ‘pockets of bureaucratic effectiveness’ – or PoEs, defined as public organizations that are reasonably effective in carrying out their functions in otherwise dysfunctional governance contexts – such ‘pockets’ have often been characterized as ‘islands’ that are somehow separate from their wider context. This panel relocates PoEs in a more political realm by showing how such agencies flow directly from the character of elite-level politics and elite bargaining in Africa – what we term the ‘political settlement’ in specific contexts. From this perspective, investigating PoEs offers insights not only into the political economy of development but also the politics of state-building and elite survival in Africa. With a focus on PoEs located within the economic technocracy (ministries of finance, central banks) of four African countries, this panel will draw on ongoing research being conducted in different types of political settlement, ranging from the ‘competitive clientelism’ of Ghana and Zambia, through the more ‘dominant’ cases of Uganda and Rwanda.
- The politics of bureaucratic ‘pockets of effectiveness’ in Ghana, Abdulai, Abdul-Gafaru,(University of Legon, Accra, Ghana) and Mohan, Giles, (Open University, London, United Kingdom)
- Towards un-developmental authoritarianism in Zambia? The downward spiral of political-bureaucratic relations since 2011, Hinfelaar, Marja, (Southern Africa Institute for Policy and Research, Lusaka, Zambia)
- Can Rwanda’s “pockets of effectiveness” advance our understanding of state-building?, Chemouni, Benjamin, (LSE, London, United Kingdom)
- The shifting fortunes of economic technocracy in Uganda: caught between, Bukenya, Badru (Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda) and Hickey, Sam, (University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom)
PANEL 2: The Economics of Export Diversification in Africa in the 21st Century
Export diversification is central to the development of more robust African economies that can survive the boom and bust cycle of commodity prices driven by external, to macroeconomic stability through foreign exchange generation, and to self-sustaining growth processes through creating linkages with the domestic economy. Export diversification in the 21st century means entering and remaining competitive in global value chains. This is equally true for agribusiness exports as it is for manufactured exports, although the global production networks for manufactured goods may be longer and more complex. This panel seeks to examine the successes and failures of African countries that have tried to build new export sectors in agribusiness and manufacturing over the past decade. It encourages papers that shed light on either successes or failures, as we can learn from both. Papers can take up various issues related to entering and remaining competitive in global value chains, such as the role of industrial policy; the role of foreign direct investment; state-business relations surrounding the take up and implementation of industrial policy, FDI, industrial parks, etc.; the role of different global buyers and end markets; the role of governance within particular GVCs; labor issues, the making of a working class and its implications for performance in global value chains; management experience, skilled labor and the implications for export development; and so on.
CONVENOR: Nicolai Schulz, London School of Economics, firstname.lastname@example.org
- The apparel export industry in Ethiopia: successes and failures of industrial policy to promote local firms”, Lindsay Whitfield (Roskilde University, Denmark)
- Obstacles to development of the textile sector in Sub-Saharan Africa, Richard Sidebottom, (University of Cambridge, UK)
- Polycentric public-private governance of global production networks: implications for decent work in South African fruit” , Matthew Alford (University of Manchester, United Kingdom); Co-Authors: Stephanie Barrientos (Global Development Institute, University of Manchester, United Kingdom), Margareet Visser (Institute of Development and Labour Law, University of Cape Town, South- Africa)
- The Obstacles to Backward Linkage Promotion in the African Oil Sector” Amir Lebdioui, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom)
PANEL 3: The Politics of Value-Addition in African Countries and the Politics of Global Value Chains, Production Networks, and Commodity Chains
Convenor: Jesse Salah Ovadia, University of Windsor, Department of Political Science, email@example.com
Restructuring of the global economy and emergence of global production networks offer new opportunities for Africa’s industrialisation alongside new mechanisms of inequality and uneven development. Global value chain analysis has raised important issues around industrial policy and upgrading strategies as well as governance along the value chain. However, as more recent analyses have argued, politics have been marginal in these analyses (Meyer & Phillips, 2017; IGLP Law and Global Production Working Group, 2016). This panel attempts to address the lacuna surrounding the developmental outcomes of increased global value chain participation and integration in African economies through case study analysis. We invite papers that offer new insights into the politics of value addition and impact of institutions, elite behaviour, state intervention, and struggle on the distribution of value and possibilities for global production and commodity extraction to foster industrialisation.
- Domestic Value Chains: Dangote’s operations in Agriprocessing, Christina Wolf (Kingston University, UK)
- Industrial Policy Through Participation in Global Value Chains: The Case of Ethiopia’s Textile and Leather Industries, Jostein Løhr Hauge (Cambridge University, UK)
- Global Value Chains and Local Linkages in the Nigerian Petroleum Industry, Jesse Salah Ovadia (University of Windsor, Canada)
- Re-environmentalization”: Integrating environmental dimensions into embeddedness and implications on upgrading in GPNs through the case of Kenyan horticulture farmers, Aarti Krishnan, (Overseas Development Institute and University of Manchester, United Kingdom)
- The Changing Dynamics of Capital Accumulation in Private Logistic Companies in Tanzania: An Enterprise-Based approach to Informalisation., Sial Farwa, (SOAS, London, United Kingdom
PANEL 4: The Politics of Agricultural and Industrial Policy in Africa
Agricultural and industrial policy are experiencing a renaissance on the African continent. After three decades of attempts to promote economic transformation by “getting the prices and institutions right”, an increasing number of scholars, research institutions, donor organisations, and politicians within and outside of Africa have been coming out in favour of more active and selective state support in both sectors.
Particularly the Global Value Chain literature has been crucial in uncovering the techno-economic opportunities and obstacles to value-addition and upgrading, and highlighting the importance of active government facilitation to reap and overcome them. A frequent blind spot of this literature, however, has been neglecting the role politics play in explaining why governments appear to show diverse levels of motivation and capacity to tackle similar problems or even why similar policies can diverge significantly in implementation and outcome within and across countries.
This panel invites both theoretical and empirical papers that analyse how politics shape agricultural and industrial policy in Africa. These papers could explore how different institutional or interest group configurations, varying threats to rulers’ political survival, or significant institutional change such as democratisation influenced how African governments pursue agricultural and industrial policy. Papers that shed more light on how foreign actors and transnational politics shape the motivation and capacity of African policy makers to promote value addition are most welcome as well.
CONVENOR: Nicolai Schulz, London School of Economics, firstname.lastname@example.org
- The Politics of Contract Farming in the Tanzanian Cotton Industry , Colin Poulton,( School of Oriental and African Studies, United Kingdom)
- The Politics of Processing Primary Commodities: The Case of Rwanda, Pritish Behuria, (University of Manchester, United Kingdom)
- The Politics of Productive Sector Promotion in Mozambique’s Agro-Processing Industry, Christina Saulich ( HTW Berlin, Germany)
- The Politics of Commodity Processing Promotion: A Comparison of Export Restrictions on Raw Materials”, Nicolai Schulz (London School of Economics and Political Science,United Kingdom)
PANEL 5-6: THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA
Rebecca Engebretsen, University of Oxford, Department of Politics and International Relations, email@example.com
Florence Dafe, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of International Relations, firstname.lastname@example.org
Since the 1990s, a large research programme has emerged around the topic of financial development. The majority of these studies agree that a well-functioning financial sector is pivotal for economic development. There is also an emerging consensus that political economy factors are key to explaining how financial sectors evolve. Yet only recently have scholars started to apply political economy approaches to understanding the factors shaping financial development in the developing country context. Even less scholarly attention has been paid to the political economy of financial development in the African context and addressed the question of how political and economic factors combine to shape the variation in financial policies and outcomes across the continent. This panel examines the political economy of financial development in Africa. It is guided by the overarching question:
To what extent and in what ways can ideas, interests and institutions account for the variation in financial sector characteristics and financial sector development policy across the continent?
More specific questions that the panel seeks to address include:
- Are there special political features of African economies that make models of financial sector development elsewhere less applicable here?
- To what extent and in what ways do international financial regulations and global policy frameworks shape financial sector outcomes?
- To what extent are international financial standards compatible with promoting financial inclusion across the continent?
The political economy of financial development in Africa: PANEL 5
- Concept ambiguity and banking sector structure: Explaining the translation of the global financial inclusion agenda to Kenya and Nigeria, Dafe, Florence, (London School of Economics and Political Science, London, United Kingdom)
- The political economy anti-money laundering standards. Nigeria’s experience since 2002, Shipley, Thomas, (University of Sussex, Sussex, United Kingdom)
- The political economy of adoption of global capital standards in Kenya, Upadhyaya, Radha,(University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya)
- The Political Economy of Banking Regulation in Tanzania, Gray, Hazel, (University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom)
The political economy of financial development in Africa: PANEL 6
- Stability and Growth: The Kenyan Banking System After the Mau Mau War, Velasco, Christian, Omar, (The University of Warwick, coventry, United Kingdom)
- Central Banking and Sustainable Development in Africa, Dikau, Simon, (SOAS University of London, London, United Kingdom)
- Financial sector change and the case of resource-rich authoritarian countries, Engebretsen, Rebecca, (University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom)
- Post-conflict banking sector development and ruling elite control over access to capital: Angola and Mozambique in comparative perspective, Hensing, Jakob, (University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom)
- Financial deepening vs. financialisation: Changing lending patterns in Sub-Saharan Africa, Karwowski, Ewa, (Hertfordshire Business School, United Kingdom)
Panel 7 + 8: The politics of housing in Africa
Convenor – Tom Goodfellow
Housing is rising up the development agenda in Africa, as the extent of the gulf between the needs of the urban majority and what is provided by the formal sector becomes glaringly apparent. Being one of the starkest and most visible indicators of inequality in urban Africa, housing is becoming increasingly central to the agenda of political actors as well as development organisations. As experiments in different forms of housing provision gather pace, alongside middle class growth and ‘global city’ visions that often aim to push up land values while fuelling the displacement of the poor, Africa’s urban landscapes are transforming rapidly, with far-reaching consequences. For those lacking financial resources or legal titles, the precarity of merely existing in urban areas with escalating land values is starkly evident. At the same time, governments seeking to bolster their popular legitimacy are often returning to modernist visions and ideas about the form and function of housing. The combination of escalating ‘expulsions’ from urban land, vulnerability to environmental hazard, the use of housing as a mechanism for class formation, and renewed faith in the potential of the state as the key to addressing housing challenges make this an important moment in the evolution of housing politics in Africa. This panel explores these issues drawing on case studies from Ethiopia, Tanzania, Ghana, South Africa, Angola and Kenya.
Panel 7: The politics of housing in Africa 1: Housing and precarity
Chair – Tom Goodfellow
- Precarious Homes: Housing, Real Estate and the Making of Urban Futures in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Marco di Nunzio, (LSE, United Kingdom)
- Profit and precarity: land, housing and the middle classes in suburban Dar es Salaam, Claire Mercer, (LSE, United Kingdom)
- Double payment for land? Examining the challenges of land acquisition for individual housing development in peri-urban Accra, Divine Asafo, (University of Sheffield, United Kingdom)
- The Politics of Fire within Informal Settlements in South Africa, Sarah Jane Cooper-Knock, (University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom)
PANEL 8: The politics of housing in Africa 2: Housing, aspiration and emulation
Chair – Claire Mercer
- Crumbling Modernisms: Luanda architectonic utopias, 1948-2018, Chloé Buire, (Sciences Po Bordeaux, France)
- The politics of life in the urban periphery: territory, mobility and class formation in Addis Ababa, Tom Goodfellow and Zhengli Huang ( University of Sheffield, United Kingdom)
- Thinking comparatively across 2 post-colonial cities: Singapore as a model for Nairobi’s housing policy in the 1970s, Anne Pitcher, (University of Michigan, United States)
Panel 9: The Political Economy of Managing FDI in Africa
Convenor – Giles Mohan (Open University)
Following the hyperbole around the ‘African Lions’ some African economies remain relatively buoyant with inward FDI flows holding up. That said FDI is concentrated in relatively few ‘hub’ economies with a tentative shift from Southern Africa towards North, East and West Africa. Another trend is a diversification of investment projects away from a concentration on resource extraction. The fastest growing sectors for inward FDI are services, construction and manufacturing. And while the US and some European economies remain the main sources of FDI, the Asian economies are the biggest sources of new investment. These changing dynamics raise important political economy questions around the extent to which these capital flows can be managed for more inclusive development and structural transformation of African economies.
The management of FDI flows will depend on sectoral and firm-level dynamics and especially on the potential linkages emerging from manufacturing compared to enclave-type and capital intensive resource extraction. Another important trend is the revival of industrial policy in some African countries and growing interest among some governments and international agencies in fostering dynamic structural transformation. The interaction of industrial policy design and implementation and the management of FDI is critical to understand the potential impact of emerging investments. Such policy interventions are also shaped by domestic political institutions and the elite politics surrounding them so ‘management’ is always also a highly political terrain. The session draws together grounded experiences of managing inward FDI from a range of investors and both within and beyond Africa’s hub economies.
- Political settlements and inward investment strategies: the case of Ghana’s oil, Mohan, Giles, (The Open University, Leicester, United Kingdom)
- Beyond Politics? Drivers and motivations for Ethiopia and China’s financing and development of wind energy infrastructure in Ethiopia, Chiyemura, Frangton, (The Open University (UK), Milton Keynes, United Kingdom)
- Exploring the Dynamics between the Ethiopian Investment Commission (EIC), the Chinese Business Institutional Mechanism and Tacit Networks in Chinese Private Investment in Ethiopia, Weiwei, Chen (SOAS, University of London, London, United Kingdom)
- The political economy of managing industrial FDI and labour relations in Ethiopia , Oya, Carlos, (SOAS, University of London, LONDON, United Kingdom) and Schaefer, Florian, T, (SOAS, University of London, LONDON, United Kingdom)
PANEL 10: The political economy of mechanising African agriculture
Convenor: Lidia Cabral (Institute of Development Studies)
This panel will focus on recent technology changes in African agriculture and specifically the emphasis on mechanisation as a vehicle for modernisation and structural transformation of the agricultural economy. The renewed interest in mechanisation echoes the rise of agriculture in the policy agenda since the early 2000s and the quest for an African Green Revolution. Several African governments have resurrected mechanisation programmes, largely abandoned since the times of Structural Adjustment in the 1990s, and have become once again directly involved in the procurement of machinery and setting up mechanisation services, albeit with new features, including the involvement of the private sector. The revival of agricultural mechanisation has been prompted by new aid and trade opportunities with countries like India, China and Brazil, who have been supplying subsidised farming machinery as part of South-South cooperation and associated export credits. Meanwhile, structural changes in some regions, including the consolidation of land holdings and the rise of middle farmers, have stimulated demand for mechanisation and created new business opportunities. Markets for second-hand machinery and machinery rental are thriving in countries like Ghana, Nigeria and Kenya. Individual farmers and farmer cooperatives owning machinery are themselves involved in the delivery of mechanisation services.
This panel seeks to explore the political economy of mechanisation – considering the actors involved, their roles and motivations and power dynamics – and how mechanisation is shaping social change in rural areas. The panel will bring together contributions from across agrarian settings and political economies in Africa that offer fresh empirical material on patterns of mechanisation, policy instruments, business models and changing social relations and agrarian structures.
- Tractors, commercial agriculture and smallholders in northern Ghana: examining the historical linkages, Kojo Amanor (University of Ghana, Ghana)
- Tractors, public-private partnerships and the making the modern farmer in Mozambique, Lídia Cabral, (Institute of Development Studies, United Kingdom)
- Tractors and agrarian transformation in Zimbabwe: insights from Mvurwi farming area, Toendepi Shonhe (University of Cape Town, South Africa)
- Agricultural development narratives and emerging mechanisation business models in Ethiopia, Ayele, Seife, (Institute of Development Studies, London, United Kingdom)
PANEL 11: Efforts and Potentials for Structural Transformation in Ethiopia and the Horn: Examining State, Business and Labour Relations.
Panel Convenors: Eyob Balcha Gebremariam (LSE) and Samuel Andreas Admasie (University of Basel & University of Pavia)
This panel seeks to provide a platform for comparative analysis of the political-economic dynamics and relations between states, businesses, and labour in Ethiopia and the Horn region. The key question that informs the comparative analysis is to what extent the observed trends of relations between states, businesses and labour have the attributes conducive to achieving structural transformation. The panel adopts the definition of structural transformation as ‘the relocation of labour from low to high productivity sectors’. Countries in the horn region have seen relatively high rate of sustained economic growth during the last decade, but with less promising indication of structural transformation. These countries vary significantly in terms of their internal political-economic configuration, and these differences are likely to have an impact on the potential for achieving structural transformation within the given setting. Without necessarily favouring the primacy of either economic or of the political factors, the panel aims to elicit critical analyses of the dominant trends in the political economy.
Papers in this panel are expected to contribute to a deeper understanding of the relationship between the political-economic structures of the respective countries – taking the relationship between the state, businesses and the labour, or any aspect thereof, as the analytical lens – and critically grapple with their effects on structural transformation efforts and potentials.
- ‘One-dimensionality’ in contemporary developmentalist literature on Ethiopia: a critique, Admasie, Samuel Andreas, (University of Basel & University of Pavia, Basel, Switzerland)
- (Re)building state legitimacy via service delivery: the case of Somalia, Thomas, Emma, (SOAS, London, United Kingdom)
- Foreign Direct Investment and Knowledge Diffusion in Poor Locations: Evidence from Ethiopia, Abebe, Girum, (Ethiopian Development Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia);MacMillan, Margaret, (Tufts University, Medford, United States);Serafinelli, Michel, (University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada)
- The Dynamics of Chinese Private Investment in Ethiopia: Realities and Its Political Economic Implications towards Ethiopia’s Structural Transformation., Chen, Weiwei, (Department of Development Studies, SOAS, United Kingdom)”
- Industrial Parks and their implications on Young Peoples’ Aspirations: a preliminary observation, Gebremariam, Eyob Balcha, (LSE, MANCHESTER, United Kingdom)
Panel 12 : “Burundi: unlikely conflict, impossible development?”
Panel Convenors: Benjamin Chemouni (LSE) and Jean-Benoit Falisse (University of Edinburgh)
Once considered a model of post-conflict transition, Burundi is again confronted with protracted political violence. In April 2015, President Nkurunziza’s announcement of his intention to run for a third presidential term resulted in mass protests, a failed coup, brutal repression, and the flight of almost 500,000 Burundians. Since then, the regime has tried to restore stability by cementing the unity of the ruling party and ruthlessly crushing opposition parties, civil society, and grass-root organisations. A climate of fear and uncertainty has set in, compounded by the trauma of the still recent civil war. The economy is, at best, at a standstill, and donors –who used to contribute to around 50% of the national budget– have decreased their financial support. Burundi may still be at the crossroads of development and conflict, or it may not. Rather, it might be stuck in a “neither conflict nor development” trap, where socio-economic stagnation is coupled with low-intensity violence and institutional decay. A situation that may not be drastically different from some of years of the ‘crisis’ it experienced between 1993 and 2015.
This panel will explore the recent mutations of Burundian society, politics, and economy. How do clientelistic modes of governance get sustained or reconfigured under the strain of socio-economic decline? How do the private sector and development aid organisations adapt to such “neither peace nor war” situation? How much has the party phagocytised government and administration and what are the consequences for the country’s development? The panel will bring micro and macro perspectives from political science, political economy, and economics.
- Mobile Democracy: Social media’s impact on the new (and old) voices of Burundi’s 2015 electoral crisis, Lemon, Adrienne, (Search for Common Ground, Brussels, Belgium)
- Burundi at crossroads : from negative peace to uncertainty, Niyonkuru, Rene Claude, (UC Louvain, Louvain-La-Neuve, Belgium)
- From FM radio stations to Internet 2.0 overnight: information, mobility and social media in post-failed coup Burundi, Falisse, Jean-Benoit, (University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom)
PANEL 13: The Political Economy of Drives toward Universal Electrification in Sub-Saharan Africa
Panel convenors: Barnaby Dye (University of Oxford) and Ivan Cuesta-Fernandez (University of Edinburgh)
Discussant: Filippo Menga (University of Reading)
Pledges to attain universal electrification by 2025 or earlier are becoming as ubiquitous in policy statements as connected commitments to attain middle-income status. The association is not arbitrary, as the governments of Rwanda, Ethiopia or Tanzania, amongst others, attach the utmost importance to expanded generation, transmission and distribution capacities to reinvigorate industrialisation and, ultimately, attain middle-income status. At the same time, developmental policies seek to extend the benefits of electricity to rural settings and, alongside, quell migration to urban areas. Unsurprisingly then, an increasing number of African governments have set in motion aggressive ‘electric scrambles’ to expand their generation fleet, reinforce ailing transmission and distribution infrastructure, and reach out to rural users. A number of recent works have explored these phenomena, thereby yielding enlightening insights into the politics of sectoral reforms, donor-recipient relations or embryonic sustainability transitions. However, the Political Economy of electricity in Subsaharan Africa has only partially captured drives toward universal electrification.
This panel wishes to contribute to an emerging research agenda on the political economy of electrification in Africa, centred upon drives toward universal electrification. Accordingly, it will interrogate the political economy of ongoing ‘electric scrambles’.
- Electric Scrambles in Rwanda and Tanzania: ‘Meta-unrealism’ in the Megawatt Mission?, Dye, Barnaby, (University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom)
- The political economy of electrification in Beira: Mozambique’s second city., Kirshner, Joshua, (University of York, York, United Kingdom)
- On citizenship, off-grid, Phillips, Jon, (University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom)
- Problematic elements in Maputo’s energy transitions: precarity, autonomy and modernisation in the energy landscape, Castán Broto, Vanesa, (University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom) and Smith, Shaun, (University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom
PANEL 14: The Political Economy of State-Society Relations in Africa
Chair: Siachiwena, Hangala (University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa)
- The politics of social protection reforms in Malawi under President Peter Mutharika, 2014-17, Siachiwena, Hangala (University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa)
- Ghana’s New Middle Class Support for Democracy: Evidence from the Activities of Political Pressure Groups and Social Movements, Bob-Milliar, George, (Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi-Ghana, Kumasi, Ghana)
- The interaction between local political economies and decentralisation in Uganda, van Hooft, Christine, (University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom)
- “Searching for ‘ un bon payeur ’: the politics of credit monitoring in the CFA zone”, Watters Opalo, Vanessa, (Northwestern University, Evanston, United States)
If you have any queries or suggestions please contact Pritsh Behuria (email@example.com). For panel and paper submissions please follow the instructions on the website http://www.asauk.net/call-for-papers-and-panels-asauk-2018-now-open/